Tag Archives: freebsd

Acmetool utility port for the FreeBSD

I am actively using Lets Encrypt certificates for my private and business projects. Initially i been using official Python client to obtain them, and it was all kind of possible problems. At some point i migrated to the Acmetool client which works perfectly and allows me to maintain hundreds of the certificates with a minimal efforts. This is feature list from the web site:

✅ Zero-downtime autorenewal
✅ Supports any webserver
✅ Fully automatable
✅ Single-file dependency-free binary
✅ Idempotent
✅ Fast setup

Only problem for me was lack of the FreeBSD port – yes, you can grab FreeBSD binaries from the author web site, install them somewhere to the /opt/, but its not a Jedi Path. So i had to create FreeBSD port, which after few months of aging was finally accepted to the tree. There are small changes in the port compared to the author build – paths are FreeBSD-style and builds should be repeatable (i hope, at least). As usual – feel free to send me PR-s, bugreports and suggestions.

Lets Encrypt!

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Reading DHT11 temperature sensor on Raspberry Pi under FreeBSD

Connecting sensor to the RPi

DHT-11 is a very cheap temperature/humidity sensor which is commonly used in the IoT devices. It is not very accurate, so for the accurate measurement i would recommend to use DHT21 instead. Anyway, i had DHT-11 in my tool box, so decided to start with it. DHT-11 using very simple 1 wire protocol – host is turning on chip by sending 18ms low signal to the data output and then reading 40 bytes of data. Details about the protocol could be found in the specification. To read data from the chip it should be connected to the power (5v) and gpio pin. I used pin 2 as VCC, 6 as GND and 11 as GPIO (it is GPIO17, see pinout):

FreeBSD support

There is no support for this device out of the box. I found some sample code on the github, see lex/freebsd-gpio-dht11 repository. This code was a good starting point, but soon i found 2 issues with it:

  1. Results are very unreliable, probably due to gpio decoding algorithm.
  2. Checksum is not validated, so sometime values are bogus.

Initially i was thinking to fix this myself, but later found kernel module for this purpose, 1 wire over gpio. This module contains DHT11 kernel driver (gpio_sw) which implements DHT-11 protocol in the kernel space and exporting /dev/sw0 for the userland. Driver compiles on FreeBSD11/ARM without any changes. Use make install to install the driver.

Putting all the things together

  • To specify GPIO pin with a sensor put hint.gpio_sw.0.pin=17 into /boot/loader.conf.
  • I found that gpio_sw.ko needs to be loaded after kernel initialization, or device is not created. So i have added /sbin/kldload gpio_sw.ko to the /etc/rc.local file.
  • To make /dev/sw0 available for the non-root users you should add devfs_system_ruleset="localrules" to the /etc/rc.conf and add into /etc/devfs.rules this section:
add path 'sw0' mode 0644
  • Sample program (test.c) shows non human-readable data, use something like printf("h:%d.%d %%, t:%d.%d C\n",Buf[0],Buf[1],Buf[2],Buf[3]); if you want to get humidity and temperature, e.g.
root@rpi-b:/home/freebsd/gpio_sw # ./test
h:22.0 %, t:12.0 C

That is it, after reboot you should have working /dev/sw0 device.

Solving problems with LUA

Final goal was to add this sensor to the domoticz software. It is using LUA scripting to extend it functionality, e.g. to obtain data from non-supported or non standard devices. So, i decided to read /dev/sw0 from the LUA. I wrote simple test script:

file = io.open ("/dev/sw0", "rb")
out = file:read (5)

However script was always returning nil and i had to use truss tool to understand the problem. This is part of the trace:

open("/dev/sw0",O_RDONLY,0666)             = 3 (0x3)
fstat(3,{ mode=crw-r--r-- ,inode=96,size=0,blksize=4096 }) = 0 (0x0)
ioctl(3,TIOCGETA,0xbfbfe28c)             = 0 (0x0)
read(3,0x2065b000,4096)              ERR#22 'Invalid argument'

As you could see – LUA trying to read 4096 bytes, despite the fact that we specified 4. And driver checks this and returns the error. To fix this i did a small patch to avoid error and make LUA happy:

-- gpio_sw/gpio_sw.c    2014-05-12 11:26:51.000000000 +0000
+++ gpio_sw.mod/gpio_sw.c   2017-01-14 14:10:33.736813000 +0000
@@ -273,9 +273,10 @@
   duprintf("read - start, uio_resid=%i\n", uio->uio_resid);
   struct gpio_sw_softc *sc = cdev->si_drv1 ;
-  if ( uio->uio_resid >= sc->BufSize) return EINVAL ;
+  if ( uio->uio_resid >= sc->BufSize) sc->Len=sc->BufSize-1 ; // to work with buffered IO
+  else sc->Len=uio->uio_resid;
   if ( ! sc->GpioStatus) return ENXIO ;
-  sc->Len = uio->uio_resid ;
   int i = 0 ;
   while ( i < sc->Len)

After modification script works as it should:

[root@rpi-b /home/freebsd]# lua52 test.lua

Now chip is connected to the domoticz and reporting actual temperature/humidity.

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Domoticz on RPi 1 using FreeBSD/ARM

FreeBSD, Rasberry and Domoticz

I decided to create a Home Automation controller from my old Raspberry 1 device. In the past i used Linux on it but now it is supported by FreeBSD/ARM, so i decided to give it a try.

Installing FreeBSD

This is an easiest part. RPi 1 is fully supported, so i just downloaded FreeBSD11 image and put it on the SD card using dd tool. That`s it, FreeBSD boots normally (no installation process required) and is ready to use. I only added ntpd/sshd to the autostart process.

Installing domoticz

Domoticz is an open source home automation system, written on C++. There is a FreeBSD port for it, so first thing i tried to do was to install binary package using pkg tool. Unfortunately there is no binary package, so i had to install ports. To save some time before starting domoticz compilation i would recommend to install all build requirements using pkg manager, compiling them on RPi 1 would take a lot of time. Some tips on getting domoticz compiled on RPi 1:

  • Clang/C++ is using a lot of memory, so swap is required. I added swap space on the connected USB storage, with 512Mb swap file.
  • Compilation process will take a lot of hours. Probably cross-compilation would be much faster, but then it wont be a normal port build. Anyway, this process is a good crash test for the hardware.
  • I found that build failed on a 2 files: hardware/I2C.cpp and hardware/PiFace.cpp. This is the reason why there is no binary package. To fix the build – replace __arm__ with __linuxarm__. This will fix the build process, issue is reported to the upstream and FreeBSD maintainer.

Using domoticz

I did not found anything platform-specific for the domoticz on the FreeBSD. After installation i only imported database from the OSX installation and copied my LUA scripts for the custom sensors + installed required LUA modules from the ports. Despite the ugly build performance domoticz works very fast and using just about 25Mb of RAM. Currently I2C support in the hardware/I2C.cpp is implemented only for Linux/ARM, i am planning to fix that in a few weeks (i do not have any supported i2c devices now). FreeBSD/ARM itself works very stable, i did not had any problems with it.

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How to access Integrated Management Module on IBM System x3650 M3 server under FreeBSD

IBM System x3650 M3 server provides nice looking Integrated Management Module (IMM) GUI/CLI which can be accessed remotely (using dedicated network interface) or directly from host. In this short article I will describe how to do this from FreeBSD host machine.All tests were done with FreeBSD 10.1-RELEASE-p6 using GENERIC kernel.

  1. We will need to find virtual network card provided by IMM (RNDISCDC ETHER IBM):
    root@host /root]# usbconfig
    ugen0.1: <UHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus0, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen2.1: <EHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus2, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=HIGH (480Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen1.1: <UHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus1, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen4.1: <UHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus4, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen3.1: <UHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus3, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen6.1: <EHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus6, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=HIGH (480Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen5.1: <UHCI root HUB Intel> at usbus5, cfg=0 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=SAVE (0mA)
    ugen3.2: <RNDISCDC ETHER IBM> at usbus3, cfg=1 md=HOST spd=FULL (12Mbps) pwr=ON (100mA)
    In our case it is ugen3.2.
  2. This USB device supports 2 USB configuration – default (and active on boot) – RNDIS or alternate – CDC. FreeBSD works fine with CDC, so we need to switch this USB device to it:
    root@host /root]# usbconfig -d ugen3.2 set_config 1
    After this device should be detected by FreeBSD and dmesg should contain something like this:
    umodem0: at uhub4, port 2, addr 2 (disconnected)
    cdce0: on usbus3
    ue0: on cdce0
    ue0: Ethernet address: e6:1f:13:5e:ab:cd
  3. Now only thing left is to run dhclient on the new network interface:
    [root@host /root]# dhclient ue0
    DHCPREQUEST on ue0 to port 67
    DHCPACK from
    bound to -- renewal in 300 seconds.

    Here we can see that address of the IMM is We can use it to connect with telnet or https to get IMM interface.
  4. Username should be admin, and password could be changed using “ipmitool” utility:
    [root@host /root]# ipmitool user set password 2

Thats it 🙂 Using IMM you can manage your hardware, monitor server and do many other interesting things.

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Percona XtraBackup FreeBSD port updated to the version 2.1.3

Version 2.1.3 adds some new functionality (including encryption) and also supports MySQL 5.6. Also, to support decompression of the compressed archives I decided to add qpress archiver to the ports tree. See http://www.freshports.org/databases/xtrabackup/ for the details. Please also make a note, that new versions support only MySQL 5.1 (with InnoDB plugin only), MySQL 5.5 and MySQL 5.6.

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Android Manager Agent protocol research

My mobile phone comes with Android Manager Agent. It is Android agent + Windows desktop application to manage phone, including managing contacts, SMS, media files, applications, etc. It is possible to use this software via WIFI or USB. Unfortunately desktop client is Windows only and i was not able to run it in Wine.

So i decided to reverse protocol using wire-shark and Java decompiler. It was found that communication is not encrypted, only protection is MD5 of the agent PIN (in WIFI mode). Every packet contains from “magic” header, command type, status field and (optionally) data field. My goal is to write utility to backup/restore contacts book and calendar (yes, i don`t want to store it on google) and, possibly to make a GUI for offline browsing/editing.

Right now client is in very early stage and only able to connect to device (WIFI) and request some information. Patches, comments and suggestions are welcome.

Prototype is hosted on github – https://github.com/samm-git/one_touch_993D_gsm/blob/master/android_manager_client.pl

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ATOP 2.0.2 performance monitor ported to FreeBSD

Today i updated my FreeBSD port of the ATOP full-screen performance monitor to the recent version. PR is already sent, it should be in a port tree soon. Atop is one of my favorite tool to monitor performance not only because it shows much more then system TOP(1), but also because it allows to record all activity to binary log to work with it later or generate different reports.

FreeBSD port supports all Linux version functionality except per-process network utilization (netatop). Netatop module porting/replacement is not something trivial and will require kernel patching.

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